Depression

Many studies have identified a strong link between suicide and diagnosable mental illness, especially depression. So because women suffer from depression at a much higher rate than men, they would seem to be at higher risk for suicide. But women actually commit suicide about one-fourth as often as men.

Writing in the journal Comprehensive Psychiatry, George E. Murphy, M.D., an emeritus professor of psychiatry at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis, says that women may be protected because of the way they think about problems and interact with others.

“Women process their experiences with friends. They discuss their feelings, seek feedback and take advice,” Murphy says. “They are much more likely to tell a physician how they feel and cooperate in the prescribed treatment. As a result, women get better treatment for their depression.”

That treatment may help protect them from suicide, but Murphy says there is more to it. The approach to problem-solving is what lands a woman in a psychiatrist’s office in the first place. And that approach may be keeping female suicide rates lower than those of men.

Suicide vs. attempted suicide

There are roughly 30,000 suicides in the United States each year, and three-fourths of those are men. But the number of attempted suicides is at least 10 times that, and even that estimate may be low because many suicide attempts are euphemistically classified as lacerations or accidental poisonings when patients receive treatment in hospital emergency rooms.christel maritz psychologist

Although suicide rates are lower among women, women lead men two to one in suicide attempts. So, Murphy says at least 200,000 women are involved in suicide attempts annually. But he points out that attempted suicide most often is not an attempt to actually end one’s life. Its purpose, he says, is to survive with changed circumstances.

“An attempted suicide is not really an attempt at suicide in about 95 percent of cases. It is a different phenomenon. It’s most often an effort to bring someone’s attention, dramatically, to a problem that the individual feels needs to be solved. Suicide contains a solution in itself,” he says.

In attempted suicide, both men and women tend to use methods that allow for second thoughts or rescue. Murphy says that when people intend to survive, they choose a slowly effective, or ineffective, means such as an overdose of sleeping pills. That contrasts to the all-or-nothing means like gunshots or hanging used by actual suicides.

In the past, researchers who looked at the high rate of attempted suicide in women concluded that women were just not as efficient as men at taking their own lives. Murphy calls that “sexist baloney” and points to statistics that show that like men, women who commit suicide most often use guns. However, even as the number of women using the most lethal means increases, the suicide rate in women has slowly declined.

“So it really goes back to the same thing — that women, when they intend to do it, can be just as effective as men in committing suicide. But they aren’t so inclined,” Murphy says.

Cognitive differences

Murphy believes women are less inclined to commit suicide because their thinking is more inclusive. While a man might tend to throw aside seemingly peripheral issues to get to the core of a problem, a woman might take more things into account. She may continue to seek input and process problems long after the point where men decide on a course of action.

“She’ll consider not just her feelings but also the feelings of others — her family, the children, even acquaintances, and how those people will be affected by a decision like suicide,” Murphy says. “A man is much less likely to take those things into account. He makes his decision, and it’s about him, so he doesn’t feel the need to share it with anyone else.”

But before they ever get to the point of considering suicide, Murphy says, women are much more likely to seek help with their problems. The classic example is asking for directions when driving. Many men refuse to do that, perhaps seeing it as an admission of weakness. They believe they are supposed to be competent in all areas. Because they are not, they are at risk. Women, on the other hand, are much more likely to seek advice and take it.

Even though depressed or alcoholic men are less likely to look for help, it still may be possible to prevent many suicides, Murphy believes. He says alert physicians might be able to pick up on risk factors and refer men into treatment to help them look for ways to solve their problems without ending their lives.

“Half of all people who commit suicide have seen a physician within a month of their fatal act,” he says. “Mostly they didn’t get diagnosed, and if they did, they didn’t get treated very vigorously.”

That requires recognition that depressed men may understate their pain or their difficulty with a particular problem. Murphy says such recognition is essential if men are ever to benefit from the treatments that protect women from suicide. Murphy and the late Eli Robins, M.D., conducted the first comprehensive study of suicide 40 years ago, studying every suicide that occurred in St. Louis and St. Louis County during a one-year period.


Story Source:

The above post is reprinted from materials provided by Washington University In St. Louis.

Wellbeing

Many of the challenges we face in the modern world are rooted in human behavior, so psychological knowledge can help us find solutions. As a Psychologists  I work in many different areas and are concerned with practical problems. Below are only a few examples:

  • Helping people to overcome depression, stress, trauma or phobias
  • Easing the effects of parental divorce on children
  • Speeding up recovery from brain injury
  • Helping to stop or prevent bullying at school or in the workplace
  • Ensuring that school pupils and students are being taught in the most effective way
  • Making sure that people are happy at work and perform to the best of their abilities

My goal as a Psychologist is working in harmony with my patient to facilitate solutions and creating emotional wellbeing.  If you suspect that you can benefit from my support and intervention, please contact me directly at cmaritz@webmail.co.za

well-be·ing | noun: well-being; noun: wellbeing | the state of being comfortable, healthy, or happy. “an improvement in the patient’s well-being”

 

Sleep contributes to overall happiness!

Sleep contributes to overall happiness!  Is chronic sleep problems adding to you being tired, crabby, irritable and not productive, contributing to your mood disorder.  Sleep problems are especially common in individuals who have been diagnosed with anxiety, depression or bipolar disorder.

According to a Harvard Health Publication, chronic sleep problems affect 50 percent to 80 percent of patients in a mental health practice and only 10 percent to 18 percent of adults in the general public.  Sleep problems are especially common in individuals who have been diagnosed with anxiety, depression or bipolar disorder. Did you know?

• 65 percent to 90 percent of Individuals clinically diagnosed with major depressive disorder have sleep problems.

• 90 percent of children diagnosed with depression experience a sleep problem.

• Evidence suggest that individuals with depression and sleep problems are less likely to respond to treatment than those who have no sleep problems.

• Individuals diagnosed with bipolar disorder are 69 percent to 99 percent more likely to experience insomnia while experiencing a manic episode. However, when an individual experiences a depressive episode (bipolar depression) 23 percent to 78 percent of those same individuals sleep excessively.

• 50 percent of individuals clinically diagnosed with anxiety experience difficulty falling asleep.

Treating sleep problems may alleviate or reduce mental health symptoms. An overtired adult is no different than an overtired child — tired and crabby, irritable and not productive, which contributes to mood and behaviors. What does sleep do? Every 90 minutes a normal sleeper changes between two categories; “quiet” sleep and REM (rapid eye movement sleep). During quiet sleep, an individual’s body temperature drops, muscles relax and breathing slows down. This stage of sleep actually boost an individual’s immune system. This is where the body truly rests and rejuvenates.

Following a few behavioral changes that can be implemented to benefit your overall happiness and well-being.

• Restrict or limit alcohol and nicotine. Did you know that alcohol and nicotine contributes to sleeplessness? Alcohol initially depresses the nervous system, which helps some people fall asleep, but the effects wear off in a few hours and people wake up. Nicotine is a stimulant, which speeds heart rate and thinking. Avoiding these substances is best, but not using them before bedtime is another option.

• Start moving. Exercising regularly can help with sleep patterns. People who exercise fall asleep faster and spend more time in deep sleep.

• Create good sleep habits. Many experts believe that people learn insomnia and can learn how to sleep better. Having good “sleep hygiene” includes maintaining a regular sleep-and-wake schedule, using the bedroom only for sleeping or sex, and keeping the bedroom dark and free of electronics.

• Get into a state of relaxation. Using relaxation techniques such as meditation, guided imagery, deep breathing exercises, and progressive muscle relaxation (alternately tensing and releasing muscles) can help reduce anxiety and slow down your thought process as you prepare for sleep.

• Changing negative expectations. If a person has insomnia, they may have a tendency to focus on the fact they can’t fall asleep. By using cognitive behavioral techniques, individuals can try to change negative expectations and build more confidence that they can have a good night’s sleep.

Eight hours of sleep, especially if taking medication is recommended. Sleep is vital to healthy growth and development. It also is necessary to maintain mood and stress level.

http://www.sanduskyregister.com/Health-and-Fitness/2016/02/11/Sleep-contributes-to-overall-emotional-health.html